Privacy Policy


The columnist of this commodity is an admonition aegis specialist, not an attorney. The opinions independent in this commodity should not be construed as acknowledged advice. The clairvoyant should argue with a accountant advocate if acknowledged admonition is appropriate about to FS 501.171.


Cybercriminals cruise the Internet searching for openings in computer systems to exploit. They wish to steal, alter, abort or contrarily illicitly accretion admission to the arcane admonition captivated by businesses and organizations. Both vulnerabilities and threats are growing. Law administration admiral accept been clumsy to put a “dent” in cybercrime.

Law-makers in Florida, however, accept absitively who should accept the lion’s allotment of the albatross for attention PII (or Personally Identifiable Information). Individuals now accept the albatross of attention arcane admonition if they are a “covered entity” or business in Florida.

Do you apperceive what the law (FS 501.171) requires? Are you a “covered commodity beneath Florida law?” Is your abstracts processing arrangement set up to be in acquiescence with Florida’s aloofness law? Can you prove that you accept taken the “reasonable measures” that the law requires to assure the arcane admonition that you acquire on employees, barter and others?

Is your admonition arrangement able abundant to avert a cyber attack?

Would you auspiciously be able to avert yourself adjoin a acquiescence audit?

What can you contrarily do?

You can argue with an advocate to actuate if you are covered by the accoutrement of Florida’s Admonition Aloofness Act. The astute and advisable affair to do would be to accept that if you are accepting or advancement arcane claimed abstracts on people, you are acceptable advised to be a covered entity.

Florida’s law includes a diffuse analogue as to what is protected. It is: any material, behindhand of concrete form, on which claimed admonition is recorded or preserved by any means, including, but not bound to, accounting or announced words, graphically depicted, printed or electromagnetically transmitted that are provided by an alone for the purpose of purchasing or leasing a artefact or accepting a service.

The claimed admonition covered beneath Florida’s Aloofness Act would cover a person’s amusing aegis number, a driver’s authorization or identification agenda number, authorization number, advancing identification agenda or added agnate abstracts acclimated to verify identity. Additionally included are banking annual numbers, acclaim or debit agenda numbers with any appropriate aegis codes, admission code, or countersign that is all-important to admittance admission to an alone account; any admonition apropos an individual’s medical history, brainy or concrete condition, or medical analysis or analysis by an individual’s bloom affliction professional; or an individual’s bloom allowance action amount or subscriber identification amount and an different identifier acclimated by a bloom insurer to analyze the individual.

The accumulator of arcane admonition would arise to cover all “hard copy” or cardboard annal and those stored by a billow service. The covered commodity is alone amenable for accepting the admonition it calm and cannot alteration its responsibilities to a third affair (such as a billow accumulator company).

FS 501.171 states that anniversary covered entity, authoritative commodity or third-party abettor shall yield reasonable measures to assure and defended abstracts in cyberbanking anatomy that contains claimed information.

The Law states, a part of added provisions, how the breaches will be appear to authorities (including the amount of compromised annal and notification requirements). Accessible fines are included.

Florida’s Admonition Aloofness Act, FS 501.171 requires that organizations accept to yield reasonable measures to handle arcane information. The Law doesn’t absolutely dictate, however, the data of what admonition behavior and procedures should be used.

There are a amount of admonition aegis controls and standards, none of which backpack the force of law. However, abounding are advised to be actual able-bodied aegis models that are acclimated in business and industry. Organizations, in the appraisal of the author, should at atomic accept an admonition aegis policy.

Otherwise, advice from administration is acceptable absent. Meeting the analysis of “reasonable” measures to assure beneath the FS 501.171 would be arduous if the alignment had bootless to abode the affair of how it acutely handled or candy arcane information.

You should consistently yield advancing accomplish adjoin accessible intruders and assure the arcane admonition in your possession.

Since the actual aboriginal IVF procedure, the abstract adeptness to accomplish egg donation or gestational surrogacy has existed. It took doctors and association a few years to apprehend this actuality and get adequate with the concept. Considering the advanced aberration in the acknowledged cachet of egg donation and surrogacy throughout the world, it is aswell bright that not all societies accept gotten adequate with these procedures. In the U.S., abnormally in California, these procedures are allowance abounding couples accept accouchement if they may not accept been able to in the past. In addition, their top success ante authenticate the accurate abeyant of assisted reproduction if all factors accept been optimized.

This commodity will analysis the medical break for both egg donation and surrogacy. We will briefly accede how egg donors and agent mothers are called and screened. Since the action for egg donation and gestational surrogacy are in fact similar, we will altercate them together. Finally, a few thoughts about the acknowledged and ethical aspects of third affair parenting will be considered.

Egg Donation

The aboriginal egg donor cycles appear were in fact donor antecedent cycles, area arctic embryos from one brace were transferred to the uterus of addition woman. These aboriginal letters accepted that women could backpack a pregnancy, even if they had no ovarian function. From these apprehensive beginnings, there are now an estimated 2500 ovum donor cycles performed annually in the U.S. In 2003, Huntington Changeable Centermost performed about 200 egg donor cycles. In the aboriginal years, anniversary centermost devised rather accidental arrange to accommodate egg donors. With the accretion appeal for donors, and added accessible scrutiny, added academic procedures are acclimated to acquisition and awning donors.

Indications for Egg Donation

Women who account from egg donation can be disconnected into two groups: non-menstruating and menstruating females.

Non-menstruating candidates are women with abortive ovarian abortion or physiologically menopausal women. The medical call and allowances of egg donation to these women is clear. Association is still disturbing with the catechism with establishing an top age absolute for the closing group.

Menstruating women who may account from ovum donation include: 1) Women with crumbling ovarian function. These women may accept top baseline FSH levels or acknowledge ailing to ovarian dispatch if they try IVF. 2) “Older” women. As women mature, a academy allotment of the eggs they ovulate accommodate aberrant chromosome numbers. Women over age 43 about never accept with their own eggs through IVF, and eventually charge to accede egg donation. 3) Women with poor egg quality. Some women who acquaintance assorted IVF failures may aftermath poor superior embryos, behindhand of their age and FSH levels. These women generally accept with donor eggs. 4) Women who backpack abiogenetic or chromosomal abnormalities. Examples of these altitude are backward ancestry like cystic fibrosis, ascendant ancestry such as Huntington’s Disease, and counterbalanced translocations. In abounding cases women with these altitude can now use their own eggs with the advice of pre-implantation abiogenetic analysis (PGD). If, for any reason, PGD is unacceptable, egg donation becomes an advantage for some.

“I charge an egg donor.

Now What?”

The almsman and egg donor both crave screening. An generally chaste affair is the astronomic cerebral struggles and affliction that a brace will abide as they attack with the absoluteness of abdicating the woman’s abiogenetic ties to their child. A lot of of these couples should accept a affair with a analyst to altercate these issues. If these issues are bound appropriately, couples can bigger focus on their primary objective, which is to alpha or enlarge their family. Both ally accept to abide an communicable ache awning that includes, but is not bound to HIV, HTLV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. We are auspicious the macho accomplice to abide abiogenetic screening for altitude that may be added accepted in his indigenous group. Examples cover cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs ache and sickle corpuscle disease. Uterine pathology, such as fibroids and polyps, should be disqualified out through hysterosalpingogram, sonohysterogram,

or hysteroscopy.

Finding a acceptable donor may be difficult for abounding couples. Occasionally adolescent friends, sisters, or ancestors may be absorbed in helping. A lot of couples do not accept these humans accessible and we plan with agencies that recruit donors and accommodate acknowledged affairs and concise bloom allowance behavior for the donors. Experienced agencies recruit donors from academy campuses, able or acting barter journals, etc. A lot of of these agencies advance internet sites that acquiesce couples to appearance the donors in the aloofness of their own homes. Couples focus on concrete characteristics, IQ information, age, all-embracing bloom history, and whether or not the woman has been a donor before.

Some ethicists and physicians accept criticized the bureau arrangement for commercializing the process. While agencies accommodate a advantageous service, they accept aswell created egg donor “fee inflation.” As agencies attack for the aforementioned basin of abeyant donors, they activate adopting the donor fees to allure women to their agency. This plays appropriate into the easily of the critics. Currently, donors are accepting an boilerplate of $5,000 per cycle. This fee was declared to atone them for time, effort, and discomfort. As the fees go higher, they acutely go above this goal. The account media has appear belief on some women accepting as abundant as $50,000 because they affirmation supermodel/genius status. At Huntington Changeable Center, we acerb abash such practices and animate our patients to seek appropriately compensated donors, rather than be captivated earnest to these situations. A brilliant, gorgeous, able-bodied woman does not necessarily aftermath agnate children!

Once a donor is selected, she will abide a medical evaluation. She and her accomplice are buried for communicable diseases, like the recipients. She aswell takes a biologic screen. A absolute genetic/family history is taken to attending for any accessible abiogenetic ancestry that the donor may not be acquainted of. Obviously, this affection requires the donor to accept her ancestors history and be honest about it.


In general, after-effects with egg donation in appropriately called couples are excellent. If discussing results, it is important to analyze abundance ante per egg retrieval and per antecedent transfer. A lot of donors aftermath 10 or added eggs. Our after-effects appearance that success ante do not advance abundantly by appointment added than 2 embryos to the recipient’s uterus, in a lot of cases. Thus, a lot of donor cycles aftermath several added embryos for freezing. At HRC, our success ante with beginning donor egg cycles boilerplate about 50% per antecedent transfer. Our after-effects with arctic embryos is not abundant lower, so the added success amount of the beginning additional arctic transfers exceeds 75%. This accumulative success amount is the aforementioned as the abundance amount per egg retrieval procedure. If a brace fails to accomplish a abundance with egg donation, the bearings can be absolutely cutting due to the top apprehension of success and the abundant cesspool on banking resources. Our accumulation is consistently acquainted of these realities and every attack is fabricated to plan with couples in the accident of abortion to advice them abide in the donor program, unless it appears that the failures are due to an basal medical botheration in the recipient, which acutely needs to be addressed and resolved.


In general, surrogacy has not acquired boundless accepting in a lot of of the world. About all European countries, Japan, and Australia forbid the practice. Some of these countries acquiesce “altruistic” surrogacy if no banking advantage is involved. “Traditional surrogacy” refers to bogus formation of a agent mother with the berry of the advised father. In contrast, gestational surrogacy involves the assembly of embryos through IVF, application the eggs and agent of the advised parents, and appointment the embryos to the uterus of the surrogate. A lot of surrogacy performed these canicule is the closing type, so we will focus on gestational surrogacy here.

In general, gestational surrogacy is adumbrated if a woman can aftermath applicable embryos, but cannot backpack a pregnancy. Examples include:

1) Previous hysterectomy

2) Congenital absence of the uterus

3) Congenital malformations of the uterus

4) DES uterus

5) Uterine anatomy such as fibroids or scarring of the cavity

6) Maternal ache that makes abundance dangerous, such as astringent diabetes, renal failure, lupus, or rheumatoid arthritis

7) Rh Isoimmunization

8) Some breast cancers (there are differences of appraisal here)

9) Assorted IVF failures with acceptable antecedent quality

Since there are potentially cogent legal, financial, ethical, and cerebral issues with surrogacy, we animate couples to plan with agencies that accept acquaintance in selecting agent mothers and accommodate the basement to accord with these issues. Agent mothers should accept at atomic one biological adolescent that they accept raised. Compared to egg donors, agent mothers abide a abundant added accelerated cerebral assessment. A lot of applicants are alone afterward this antecedent evaluation.

After commutual the cerebral evaluation, the applicant undergoes a medical evaluation, agnate to the one performed on egg donor recipients.

A acceptable arrangement amid the gestational agent and her brace is critical. Examples of covered issues are: How abounding embryos can be transferred? What happens if there is a assorted pregnancy? Will the agent admittance a abortion if an aberrant fetus is discovered? Bloom insurance, activity insurance, accouterment allowances are discussed. Agreements apropos nutrition, smoking, travel, and added behaviors may be covered. The brace and the agent abide in acquaintance throughout the pregnancy. Surrogacy is about relationships, and this aspect can be actual advantageous to all parties involved.


In general, after-effects with gestational surrogacy are excellent, but alter according to the age of the egg provider. In a accustomed age group, after-effects with surrogacy tend to be academy than with accepted IVF. This is abundantly due to accommodating selection. Proper alternative of candidates implies that these women could accept accouchement on their own, if it were not for the medical botheration that advance them to surrogacy. Acceptable embryos placed into a well-prepared, accurate uterus apparently optimizes the IVF process.

How the Action Works

In reality, egg donation and gestational surrogacy are agnate techniques. The alone aberration is who goes home with the baby! In accepted agreement there is an egg provider, and a recipient. The cycles of the two women are synchronized application a aggregate of bearing ascendancy pills and Lupron. Upon endlessly the pills, the egg provider begins application one of the brands of injectable gonadotropins to activate assorted egg production. The use of these drugs requires several appointment visits for claret and ultrasound ecology to actuate how abounding eggs are getting produced and if they are acceptable to be mature. If the follicles assume ample enough, a individual bang of hCG is given.

The transvaginal ultrasound guided egg retrieval is timed to this injection. A lot of centers accomplish this action with acquainted sedation, abnormally with egg donors.

While the egg provider is demography her injections, the almsman begins alert account injections of estrogen. About the time of the retrieval, the almsman adds some aggregate of vaginal and injectable progesterone, appropriately creating an bogus aeon timed to the egg provider’s cycle. The eggs are accumulated with the agent from the advised father, and three canicule after a baby amount of embryos is transferred to the recipient’s uterus. Since success ante are rather high, we abash appointment ample numbers of embryos, and in abounding of our egg donor cycles, or surrogacy cycles with adolescent eggs, we generally alteration two embryos with accomplished results. Added embryos can be arctic for approaching use.

As with any medical procedure, there is a baby abeyant for risk. For the egg provider, the retrieval action can could cause centralized bleeding or infection. We accord antibacterial antibiotics to abundantly abate the accident of infection. Occasionally, the egg provider adventures the aggravation of hyperstimulation syndrome. This after-effects from an overabundant acknowledgment to the dispatch drugs. If this occurs, women acquaintance cogent belly amplification and pain. Since these women will not be pregnant, the affection bound abate with the menses, and a lot of of these women can be managed auspiciously on an outpatient basis.

In contrast, egg donor recipients and surrogates face few risks from their procedures. The capital risks are associated with abundance itself, and assorted births is an important issue. That is why it is important to use attention if chief how abounding embryos to alteration in these generally optimal situations.


While abounding ethical questions are still getting debated in society, third-party parenting, if activated appropriately, can advice abounding couples accept a ancestors that they contrarily could not achieve. The top success ante apparent in our third-party parenting affairs demonstrates the accurate abeyant of assisted changeable procedures, if all elements of the changeable action are optimized.

University of California, Los Angeles

Medical School

University of California, Los Angeles

Residency Obstetrics & Gynecology

Sloane Hospital for Women, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, New York City

Fellowship Changeable Endocrinology& Infertility

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia

Board Certification

Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility

Obstetrics and Gynecology

Years in Convenance Since 1986

Hospital Affiliations

Los Robles Medical Center

Huntington Memorial Hospital

Associate Clinical Professor, UCLA

Professional Organizations

American Academy of Obstetricians & Gynecologists

American Association for Changeable Medicine

Society of Changeable Endocrinologists

Association of Private Assisted Changeable Technology